China has a long history, going back over to 3 thousand years, ruled by Emperors and their dynasties. During 1200 China was invaded by the Mongols from Mongolia and was ruled by Kablai Khan, the era was known as the Yuan Dynasty. Mongols were the first foreign invaders who ruled China for several years. By the mid-1300s, the Yuan dynasty gave way to the Ming dynasty. Then in the mid-1600s, Manchurian troops overthrew the Ming dynasty to establish the Qing dynasty. In the early 1900s, the country came out from the power of dynasty rule to create the Peoples Republic of China. In the 1930s, China came under control of a communist government.
With a rich history dating back to over 3,500 years, China is one of the oldest civilizations of the world, which is still in existence.
The First Opium War
The First Opium War exploded out in 1840 when Britain persisted for the illegal opium trade in the territories of China whereas the China prohibited this narcotic drug. With China losing the war, Britain and other Western powers with the United States gained special commercial privileges over the country. Under the Treaty of Nanking, 1842, Hong Kong was handed to Britain and when the Opium Wars finally came to an end in 1898, Britain brought about a 99-year lease of the New Territories substantially enlarging the Hong Kong region.
The Great — “People’s Republic of China”
On October 1, 1949 the founding of the “People’s Republic of China” was certified in Beijing. A new political and economic regime was instated, built on the pattern of Soviet society. During 1950s the government launch upon a tremendous economic and social indemnification. Steps were taken to restraint inflation, mending the economy and reconstructing the war-damaged industrial plants and regions. In the process the government acquired a tremendous support from its people.
In the early 1960s State President Liu Shaoqi and his party General Secretary Deng Xiaoping took over the reigns and adopted realistic economic policies, which clashed with Mao’s vision. Dissatisfied with the new developments Mao launched a massive political attack on Liu, Deng and other pragmatists in 1966. The new movement, the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”, was aimed at gathering opposition against ruling leaders.
The Development of the Economy in 1980s
In 1980 the reformist Sichuan party chief Zhao Ziyang and as party General Secretary took over the charge. The reform policies brought great improvements in the standard of living especially for urban workers and for farmers. Literature and the arts blossomed and Chinese intellectuals established extensive links with scholars in other countries. At the same time however political dissent as well as social problems such as inflation urban migration and prostitution emerged.
China Rule in New World
After the death of Deng in 1997, President Jiang Zemin and other members slowly took over control of the day-to-day functions of government. This “third generation” leadership governed collectively with President Jiang at the center. In 2003, Hu Jintao replaced Jiang as the President.